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 Table of Contents  
BRIEF REPORT
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 136-138

Distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood group systems among blood donors in Sokoto North-western Nigeria


1 Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria
2 Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication18-Sep-2015

Correspondence Address:
Abubakar Umar Musa
Department of Hematology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto
Nigeria
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Source of Support: Nil., Conflict of Interest: There are no conflicts of interest.


DOI: 10.4103/1658-5127.165653

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  Abstract 

The ABO and Rhesus (Rh) are considered the most vital blood group systems in transfusion practice and their distribution is determined by genetics and environmental factors. We determined the distribution of ABO and Rh blood group systems among blood donors in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria by conducting a retrospective study over a two-year period (1st Jan 2012 to 31st Dec 2013) at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH) Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria. Blood donor records were studied for the distribution of ABO and Rh blood group systems while the Ag-Ab agglutination method using the tile technique was employed for blood group determination. Microsoft Excel 2010 was used to analyze the generated data into simple proportions and percentages. A total of 8,975 blood donors were attended to and the ABO group distribution was; O 4,659 (51.91%), B 2,109 (23.50%), A 1,865 (20.78%) and AB 342 (3.18%). While the Rh group distribution was 8,657 (96.46%) and 318 (3.54%) for Rh D positive and Rh D negative respectively. The blood group O was the commonest among the ABO group while majority of the donors were Rh positive. Our data can serve as a guide in formulating blood banking and transfusion services for hospitals in Sokoto, North-western Nigeria.

Keywords: ABO, blood donors, Rhesus, Sokoto


How to cite this article:
Musa AU, Ndakotsu MA, Abdul-Aziz H, Kilishi A, Aliyu I. Distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood group systems among blood donors in Sokoto North-western Nigeria. J Appl Hematol 2015;6:136-8

How to cite this URL:
Musa AU, Ndakotsu MA, Abdul-Aziz H, Kilishi A, Aliyu I. Distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood group systems among blood donors in Sokoto North-western Nigeria. J Appl Hematol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2023 Feb 4];6:136-8. Available from: https://www.jahjournal.org/text.asp?2015/6/3/136/165653


  Introduction Top


A blood group system consists of one or more antigens controlled at a single gene locus, or by two or more very closely linked homologous genes with little or no observable recombination between them.[1],[2] Of the 35 blood group systems currently recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion, the ABO and Rhesus (Rh) are considered as the most clinically significant.[1],[2],[3],[4]

Studies have shown variations in the distribution of these blood group systems among populations; reflecting the interplay between genetics and environmental factors.[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13] Thus, this study was aimed at determining the distribution pattern of ABO and Rh blood group systems in Sokoto, North-western Nigeria.


  Methods Top


This was a retrospective study over a 2-year period (1st Jan 2012 to 31st Dec 2013) conducted at the Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion of UDUTH Sokoto, North-western Nigeria.

Approval to conduct this study was obtained from the Ethic and Research Committee of UDUTH Sokoto.

Blood donor registers were accessed for data on gender and ABO and Rh blood group systems. Using Microsoft Excel 2010 software, the obtained data were analyzed into percentages and charts.

The method employed for the determination of ABO and Rh blood group systems was the Ag-Ab agglutination test using the tile technique. This entailed mixing of one drop of donor's whole blood with one drop each of commercially obtained anti-A, anti-B, anti-AB, and anti-D on a plastic tile. Using a glass rod, the cells and sera were mixed, and the tile rocked gently for a minute. Agglutinations were detected after 2–5 min macroscopically. In case of doubt, agglutinations were further sought for microscopically or results confirmed by serum (reverse) grouping using known groups A and B cells.


  Results and Discussion Top


During the study, a total of 8,975 blood donors were attended to with the females accounting for only 1.18% (106) as depicted in [Table 1] and [Table 2].
Table 1: Distribution of ABO and Rh blood group systems among the blood donors

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Table 2: Distribution of ABO and Rh blood group systems based on the gender of the blood donors

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Blood group O was the most frequent group, whereas, blood group AB was the least with a distribution of 51.91% (4,659) and 3.81% (342), respectively [Table 1] and [Table 2]. Rh-positive blood group had the highest distribution among the Rh blood group system with an occurrence of 96.46% (8,657) as shown in [Table 1] and [Table 2].

O Rh-positive blood group recorded the highest distribution 4,535 (50.53%), while AB Rh-negative blood group was the least 5 (0.06%) [Table 1].

The ABO and Rh blood group systems distribution according to the gender is as shown in [Table 2]. Blood groups O and Rh-positive had the highest distribution, whereas, AB and Rh-negative the least in both males and females.

This study found that for the ABO blood group system, blood group O had the highest distribution followed by blood groups B, A, and AB. These findings are comparable to that of similar studies by Hassan et al. and Kulkarni et al. in Northern Nigeria.[6],[7] The dominance of blood group O in the Nigerian population has also been reported by other workers.[11],[13],[14],[15] However, at variance with our study, Bakare et al. in South-western Nigeria, Odokuma et al. in South-Southern Nigeria and Iyiola et al. in North-central Nigeria all found A to be the next most common blood group after O, though B and AB blood groups were similarly the least frequent.[11],[14],[15] Bashwari in Saudi Arabia and Manoharan in Malaysia had similar findings with our study albeit Bashwari found blood group A to be the second most common blood group.[8],[9]

The finding of the overwhelming dominance of Rh-positive blood group in the Rh blood group system in the current study concurs with that of the earlier cited works.[8],[9],[11],[14],[15] Worldwide, the occurrence of Rh-negative blood group is low as demonstrated in the current and by several other earlier studies.[8],[9],[11],[14],[15] However, high distribution of Rh-negative blood group has been reported in certain populations.[16],[17]

When the distribution of both ABO and Rh blood groups system was considered, we found the top five blood groups, in descending order, to be; O Rh-positive, B Rh-positive, A Rh-positive, AB Rh-positive and O Rh-negative. These observations are in agreement with that of Olaniyan et al.[13] Manoharan findings were also almost similar to ours except in their finding of B Rh-negative as the fifth most common blood group.[9] The Odokuma and Bashwari studies also differ with ours as they found A Rh-positive and B Rh-positive as the second and third most common blood groups, respectively.[8],[15]

The patterns of distribution of both the ABO and Rh blood group systems were similar for both males and females in this study; a finding similar to that of Olaniyan and Odokuma.[13],[15] However, some workers had found a gender-related variation in the distribution of these blood group systems.[9]

From our findings in this study and other previous studies, it could be appreciated that the distribution of ABO and Rh blood group systems vary among populations; a finding that has been attributed to the variability in the genetics of these diverse populations and the interplay between genetics and the environment.[2],[3],[4],[5]

Our data demonstrate that in the ABO blood group system, blood group O had the highest distribution followed by blood groups B, A, and AB and that majority of the blood donors were Rh-positive. This finding can serve as a guide in formulating standard blood banking and transfusion services for hospitals in Sokoto, North-western Nigeria.

 
  References Top

1.
International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). Blood Group Terminology. Available from: http://www.isbtweb.org/working-parties/red-cell-immunogenetics-and-blood-group-terminology/blood-group-terminology/. [Last accessed on 2015 Jul 18].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Smart E, Armstrong B. Blood group systems. Afr Sanguine 2011;14:35-56.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Storry JR, Olsson ML. The ABO blood group system revisited: A review and update. Immunohematology 2009;25:48-59.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Avent ND, Reid ME. The Rh blood group system: A review. Blood 2000;95:375-87.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Nwauche CA, Ejele OA. Red cell antigens and the practice of transfusion medicine in Nigeria. Niger J Orthop Trauma 2003;2:68-77.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Hassan A, Babadoko AA, Ahmed AJ, Isa HA, Suleiman AM. The pattern and distribution of ABO blood groups in north western Nigeria. Ann Niger Med 2005;1:17-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Kulkarni AG, Peter B, Ibazebo R, Dash B, Fleming AF. The ABO and Rhesus groups in the north of Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1985;79:83-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Bashwari LA, Al-Mulhim AA, Ahmad MS, Ahmed MA. Frequency of ABO blood groups in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 2001;22:1008-12.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Manoharan S, Kaur AP, Imanina CW. Distribution of ABO blood group and Rhesus factor among students in ASIA metropolitan university, Malaysia. Int J Biol Res 2013;4:2962-5.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Rai V, Kumar P. Genetic analysis of ABO and Rh blood groups in backward caste population of Uttar Pradesh, India. Notulae Sci Biol 2011;3:7-14.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Bakare AA, Azeez MA, Agbolade JO. Gene frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups and haemoglobin variants in Ogbomoso, South-western Nigeria. Afr J Biotechnol 2006;5:224-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Sultana R, Rahman Z, Helali AM, Yousuf R, Mustafa S, Salam A, et al. Study of ABO and Rh-D blood groups among the common people of capital city of Bangladesh. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:814-6.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Olaniyan TO, Meraiyegbu AB, Rasong H, Dare BJ, Shafe MO, Adelaiye AB. Blood group and Rhesus factor pattern among indigenes of FCT Abuja, Nigeria. J Community Med Health Educ 2013;3:208.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Iyiola OA, Igunnugbemi OO, Raheem UA, Anifowoshe AT. Gene frequencies of ABO and Rh (D) blood group alleles in Ilorin, north-central Nigeria. World J Biol Res 2011;4:6-14.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Odokuma EI, Okolo AC, Aloamaka PC. Distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood groups in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria. Niger J Physiol Sci 2007;22:89-91.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Thangaraj K, Srikumari CR, Ramesh A. The genetic composition of an endogamous Adi-Dravidar population of Tamil Nadu. Gene Geogr 1992;6:27-30.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Garratty G, Glynn SA, McEntire R, Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study. ABO and Rh(D) phenotype frequencies of different racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Transfusion 2004;44:703-6.  Back to cited text no. 17
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


This article has been cited by
1 The Pattern of Distribution of ABO Blood Groups in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria
Victoria Moltong Yilwa
Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2019; 6(1): 67
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

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