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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 136-140

Efficacy of single-dose rasburicase in the management of tumor lysis syndrome: a case series from a regional cancer center in western India

Department of Medical and Paediatric Oncology, Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sandeep R Kukkar
Medical OPD Room No. 80, Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute, New Civil Campus, Asarwa, Ahmedabad, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1658-5127.198510

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Background: Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncological emergency. Rasburicase (recombinant urate oxidase) has been proven to be an effective therapy for prevention of TLS and its serious consequences in patients with hematological malignancies such as acute leukemias with high white blood cells count, Burkitt lymphoma, and lymphoblastic lymphoma with high tumor burden. The US Food and Drug Administration recommended daily dosing regimen for 5 days is unaffordable by each and every patient in developing countries such as India. Recently, the conducted studies have clearly shown a similar efficacy for a single dose of rasburicase. Herein, we report a case series of 15 patients, including children and adults with hematologic malignancies, in whom TLS was managed by a single dose of rasburicase. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy of single-dose rasburicase (SDR) (0.15 mg/kg intravenous infusion over 30 min) in patients with hematologic malignancies at risk for TLS. The drug was administered in five adult and 10 pediatric patients admitted to the Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute between January 2013 and December 2014. Results: The study included 15 patients, out of which 10 were pediatric (8 male:2 female) and five were adults (5 male:0 female). Patients with hematologic malignancies having Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0–2 and at high risk or potential risk for TLS were selected. The median ages in pediatric and adult groups were 7.7 years and 32 years, respectively. The presence of hyperuricemia (plasma uric acid (UA) levels ≥7.5 mg/dl) or a diagnosis of very aggressive lymphoma or leukemia based on the World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms in patients was classified as high-risk. Rasburicase was administered in a single dose of 0.15 mg/kg intravenously over 30 min. Patients were evaluated by clinical examination and blood biochemical tests at frequent intervals. Plasma samples for UA were collected at baseline before rasburicase, 6–24 h post-rasburicase, 48 h post-rasburicase, and daily during treatment. The blood samples for UA during the course of treatment were collected in prechilled tubes containing heparin and immediately immersed and transported on ice. The blood samples were analyzed within 4 h of collection. Serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, calcium, and phosphorous were monitored daily during this period. A single dose of rasburicase produced a rapid and sustained therapeutic effect of lowering the plasma UA levels in all the 15 patients. Renal parameters normalized within 72 h. UA levels remained below 4 mg/dl throughout the administration of chemotherapy until discharge, and none of the patients required a repeat dosing of rasburicase. Conclusion: SDR is a highly economical and clinically effective way of managing patients with TLS and could serve as an alternative to the 5-day treatment in a resource-limited country such as India.

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