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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 51-58

Cytogenetic analysis of acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21): Its clinical correlation with loss of X Chromosome and Del (9q)

Department Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nesma Ahmed Safwat
Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/joah.joah_67_17

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BACKGROUND: Translocation (8;21), t(8;21), is one of the most common cytogenetic abnormalities in adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. It is usually associated with secondary chromosomal abnormalities; however, it's unclear whether these abnormalities affect the clinical characteristics of t(8;21) patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of additional aberrations; loss of X chromosome and deletion of the long arm of chromosome 9 (del 9q)on the clinicopathological and immunophenotypic characteristics and prognostic behavioral of t(8;21) de novo AML. METHODS: Fifty six adults with de novo AML-M2 were enrolled. Detection of loss of X-chromosome and del 9q were performed using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). RESULTS: More than half of the patients (53.6%) harbored a secondary chromosomal abnormality in addition to t(8;21). Del 9q was found in 17.9% of the patients. A significant association was found between this chromosomal aberration and age, hepatomegally, high total leucocytic count and low platelets count (P< 0.05). Most patients had poor clinical outcome, high tendency for resistance to therapy and significantly shorter survival. On the other hand, loss of X chromosome was found in 25% of the studied patients and was not related to clinicopathological features or prognostic markers except for high platelets count and low expression of aberrant CD19 (P< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: 9q deletion associated t(8;21) could be considered as an adverse prognostic predictor being associated with poor disease outcome and shorter survival of the patients. Thereafter the use of these cytogenetic aberrations would be recommended to guide therapeutic regimens.

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