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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 10-14

Epidemiology and characteristics of sickle cell patients admitted to hospitals in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia

1 Medical Intern, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Hematology, Prine Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Saudi Minstry of Health, Jazan, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ahmad Ali Hazzazi
Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/joah.joah_67_19

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INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an autosomal recessive illness caused by the formation of abnormal hemoglobin S. Sickle cell disease has many complications such as vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC), gallstones, stroke, acute chest syndrome (ACS), and others. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and characteristics of sickle cell patients admitted to hospitals in Jazan region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted in four hospitals in Jazan region including King Fahad Central Hospital, Prince Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Sabya, and Abu-Arish General Hospital to estimate the prevalence of admitted sickle cell patients and their characteristics. All patients admitted to medicine and pediatric wards from July 15, 2018, to August 15, 2018, were included in the study. Data were collected by interview. RESULTS: Four hundred and two of 446 patients have agreed to participate with a response rate of 90%. Ninety-one (22.6%) were SCA patients, among them, 45 (49.5%) were male and 46 (50.1%) were female, with a mean age of 18.81 ± 11.05 years. Most of them were admitted due to VOC 56% (n = 51) and ACS 12.1% (n = 11). Almost all sickle patients had VOC 91.2% (n = 83), and more than half of them had ACS 58.2% (n = 53) as a complication. CONCLUSIONS: SCA was the number one cause of admissions in this study. Approximately, one out of each four patients admitted to Jazan hospitals is a sickle cell patient. VOC represents the most frequent complication of sickle disease, followed by ACS. Further studies and interventions to reduce this burden and improve sickle cell patients' health status are recommended.

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