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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 22-27

Relationship between genotype variants and the age of first acute splenic sequestration in patients with sickle cell disease in a tertiary center of Saudi Arabia: A retrospective study

1 Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Pediatrics Hospital, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Head, Research Support, Research and Innovation Center Data Manager, Trauma Registry Department, King Saud Medical City, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Lobna Abdulaziz Baitalmal
Department of Pediatrics Hematology Oncology, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/joah.joah_244_20

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BACKGROUND: Acute splenic sequestration crisis (ASSC) is one of the earliest life-threatening complications of sickle cell disease (SCD). Here, we aimed to identify the relation between the age of the first splenic sequestration episode and SCD variants. Episodes of acute splenic sequestration before 1 year of age are associated with a higher risk of recurrence. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective chart review study from the medical charts of SCD patients ≤12 years admitted to the Department of Pediatric Hematology King Saud Medical City, Riyadh with the first episode of ASSC and no other complications from January 2014 to December 2019. RESULTS: We included 47 patients (46.8% males, 53.2% females) diagnosed with SCD and having experienced their first ASSC in this review. The mean age of the patients at which the first episode of splenic sequestration happened was 3.26 years. The genotype distribution in the population was 74.5% HBSS, 21.3% HBS β0 thalassemia, and 4.3% HBSβ+ thalassemia. The crisis precipitated with fever in 74.5% of patients. Treatment included programmed blood transfusion (46.2%), splenectomy (29.8%). The recurrence rate after the first episode of ASSC was 59.6%. The high rate of recurrence was mainly due to the early age of presentation and poor compliance with suggested treatment. The use of hydroxyurea in 19.1% of patients showed a decrease of recurrence of ASSSC by 66.6% of patients. CONCLUSION: The study concluded that the HBSS variant of SCD had the earliest presentation with the first episode of ASSC but the differences were numerical without any statistical difference. Earlier age of presentation is associated with a higher rate of recurrence, but the difference was numerical not statistically significant. Our study shows hydroxyurea decreased recurrent splenic sequestrations; further research would help in establishing its role

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