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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 192-200

Survival outcomes of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients admitted to the intensive care unit: A case–control study from a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia

1 Oncology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2 Pediatrics Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3 Medical-Critical Pharmacy Services Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ibraheem F Abosoudah
Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Alrawdah Road, P. O. Box: 40047, Jeddah 21499
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/joah.joah_66_22

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BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) increases demand on Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) and survival outcomes has emerged as an area of interest in HSCT research. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this retrospective case-control study is to estimate the incidence and survival outcomes, and identify variables associated with survival amongst HSCT patients: MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients aged ≤15 years transplanted during January 2016 to December 2019 and requiring PICU admission(s). Statistical analysis involved calculating incidence of PICU admission, 2-year overall survival using Kaplan-Meier method; univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis performed to identify factors associated with outcomes and P-value of <0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Total of 130 patients underwent 150 HSCT, 31 (24%) of patients required 50 PICU admissions, discharge following PICU admission was observed in 36 (72%) admission episodes, while 14 (28%) associated with patient demise. Two- year Overall Survival (OS) amongst HSCT patients requiring PICU admission was 58% compared to 96.6% amongst patients not requiring PICU (P<0.001). subgroup analysis of cases with malignant disorders and non-malignant disorders showed similar results (P<0.001). Univariate analysis revealed reduced intensity conditioning, no engraftment at the time of PICU admission, and sepsis associated with decreased survival, however multivariate analysis revealed sepsis as the single independent prognostic factor for decreased survival. Our study reports 24% incidence of PICU admission amongst patients undergoing HSCT with a 28% mortality rate following PICU admission. CONCLUSION: Sepsis identified as the single prognostic factor associated with decreased survival. Therefore, efforts to optimize early identification and management of sepsis in the high-acuity setting of pediatric HSCT is warranted

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